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部分倒装与完全倒装用法归纳  

2010-09-27 20:55:17|  分类: 英语学习 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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英语的正常语序是“主谓紧相连,宾、表、状语在后面”。即英语的基本语序是“主语+谓语”+其他.但是由于句子结构的需要或表示强调,将谓语或谓语的一部分放到主语的前面,这种句式就称之为倒装。倒装的原因,一是语法结构的需要(如某些疑问句),二是为了强调.倒装又可分为全倒装和半倒装。将谓语动词完全移到主语之前的称为全倒装;只将助动词、be动词或情态放到主语之前的称为半倒装或叫部分倒装。即:在英语中,我们把主语在前谓语动词在后的句子叫陈述句,把谓语动词放在主语前面的句子叫倒装句。如果全部谓语放在主语之前,叫完全倒装;如果只把助动词或情态动词或be动词放在主语之前就叫部分装。请看下面的例句:
The teacher came in.(正常语序) In came the teacher.(完全倒装) We can learn English well only in this way. (正常语序)Only in this way can we learn English well. (部分倒装).

部分倒装

(1)疑问句要倒装。疑问句分为一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句和反意疑问句, 多数疑问句都是倒装语序。如Is this raincoat yours? When shall we meet again? He was very unhappy, wasn’t he?【注意】反意疑问句中前面陈述部分不倒装,后面附加部分要倒装;特殊疑问句中当主语是疑问词或是被疑问词所修饰时, 也不倒装。如:Who is Jerry Cooper? Which team won the game? (2)Only所修饰的副词、介词短语或状语从句放在句首时。要用半倒装.结构: Only+副词( 介词短语或状语从句)+ 助动词\情态动词\be+主语. eg:Only then did I realize that I was wrong. 直到那时我才意识到自己错了。 Only in this way can you learn your lessons well. 按照这种方法你才能把你的学习学好。 Only when the war was over did he know his son had given his life to the country. 战争结束时,他才知道自己的儿子为国捐躯了。Only when the war was over in 1949 was he able to go to school. Only in a big city was it possible for him to buy a wheelchair.   Only after I read the text over again did I know its main idea. (3)含有否定意义的副词或连词,如not\barely\scarcely\never before\ hardly\not until\ never\not only\ little,\seldom\no sooner ...than(刚......就)\under no circumstances(决不)\by no means \in no time \in no case\nowhere\not only ...but also(前面部分倒装)\at no time等,放在句首时,部分倒装。 Never shall I forget what you have done for me. 我从未忘记你所为我做的一切。Hardly had he got off the train when it began to move. 他刚一下车,火车就开动了。 Not only does she sing well, but also she dances well. 她不光歌唱得好,舞也跳得不错。Little did I know when I took the trip where it would lead me. By no means shall we understand you. Seldom did he go out. 他很少出去。 (4)把副词so放在句首,表示前面说的肯定情况也适用于另一个人(或物)。其句型是:so+be (have,助动词或情态动词)+主语。把neither ,nor放在句首,表示前面的否定内容也适合于另一个人或物.其句型是: neither \nor +be (have,情态动词)+主语.eg:She is busy doing her homework. So is her brother. 她在忙于做作业,她弟弟也在忙着做作业。 You have passed the exam. So have I. 你通过了考试,我也通过了。 He doesn't like shopping. Neither do I. 他不喜欢逛街,我也一样。 He can't speak any foreign lang ge. Nor can his father. 他不会说外语,他爸爸也不会 ()so+adj./adv....that的句型要倒装。 So long are his arms that he can reach the ceiling. 他的手臂很长,以至于手都可以摸到天花板。 So lo ly did he speak that others could hear him. 他讲话的声音太大,以至于别人都可以听到他的话。即:在so…that(如此…以至于)句型中,如果so连同状语一起位于句首时,也用倒装形式。如: So tired was he after a long journey that he couldn’t stay up. (6)if引导的条件状语从句中,如果有were, had, should, could, if省略,主谓部分倒装。 即:在if引导的虚拟语气中,谓语动词有were、had或should等时,可以将if省掉,把这些词语移到主语之前结构:Were\should\ had \+主语eg:If I were you, I would go. 倒装: Were I you, I would go.  如果我是你,我就去。 If I had come, I would have seen you. 倒装: Had I come, I would have seen you. 如果我来,就可以见到你了。 (7)as, though引导让步从句时,句中的表语、状语、动词原形放到as前作特殊语序变化。即在as引导的这种倒装的让步状语从句中,被倒装的部分一般分为三种:表语、状语和动词原形。如果表语是不带定语的单数可数名词,前边的a(an)要省去;被倒装的动词原形常与may、might、will、would等词连用,而这些词都要保留在原来的位置上。此外,这个倒装在句首的动词原形不能是连系动词(若是连系动词,倒装的部分是表语),一般多为不及物动词。结构:名词(不加冠词)\形容词\副词\动词+as+主语+动词(情态动词)   看几个例句:M h as I hate him, I will not kill him. Try as he might, Tom could not find a job.   Small as he is, he knows a lot. 虽然他很小,但是他懂得很多。 Young as he is ,he knows   more than you 他尽管年轻,但懂得比你多.M h as she likes, she doesn't afford it. 虽然她非常喜欢,但是她买不起。Child as he is ,he knows   a lot about the world .=Though he is a child ,he knows a lot about the world .他虽然只是个孩子,但却很懂人情世故.Try as he might, he failed again. 就算他再试,也还是会失败的。注:如果是名词充当表语放于as前时不用冠词。  Great scientist as Einstein was, he was simple. 爱因斯坦是一位伟大的科学家,他很纯朴。

(8)s h表示“这样的人/事”时, (系动词往往是be动词),当s h位于句首时,就要用倒装。如:S h would be our home in the future.S h was Albert Einstein, a simple man and the 20th century’s   greatest scientist.(9)几个否定关联词组连接的两并列分句①. not only…but(also)…连接的分句,.前面倒装,后面正常句序。如:Not only was the city polluted but (also) the streets were crowed. ②. no sooner... than;hardly…when…; scarcely…when (before)…等连接的分句前面倒装,后面正常句序。如:No sooner had he finished the talk than a man stood up and put forward a qstion.Hardly had we got to the bus stop when the bus arrived. ③. not until…连接的分句前面正常句序后面倒装。如:Not until Mr. Smith came to China did he know what kind of a country she is. Not until all the fish died in the river did the villagers realize how serious the pollution was ④. neither…nor…连接的分句前后都倒装,并且每个分句一般都是部分倒装。如:Neither could theory do without practice, nor could practice do without theory. Neither does he work hard, nor is he pro of being a st ent of   this university.【注意】如果以上所讲的这些否定关联词组连接的不是两个分句,就不用倒装了。如: Neither he nor his classmates are right. (10)在以often、always、once、many a time、now and then、every、every other way ,every two   hours,then等表示频率的副词状语位于句子开头, 且表示强调时, 采用倒装(若不表示强调也可用自然语序)。如:Many a time did the boy go swimming alone. Often did we warn them not to do so.Often we warned them not to do so.Often did I speak of him before . Many a time has he helped me with my experiments.

完全倒装

1. 用于 there be 句型。例如: There are some st ents in the classroom 教室里有几位学生。There is a tall tree in front of the classroom.教室的前面有一棵大树。2. 用于“ here ( there, now, then ,thus )+不及物动词+主语”的句型中,或以 in, out, up,   down,over, away,off,back等副词开头的句子里,以表示强调。例如: Here comes the bus. 汽车来了。There goes the bell.   铃响了。 Now comes your turn.     现在轮到你了。Out went the children.   孩子们出去了。注意:( 1 )主语是代词时,主语和谓语不倒装。( 2 ) here , there 放在句首通常用一般现在时。Here it is. 给你。你要的东西在这儿。Here he comes.    他来了。即(在以here, there或out, in, up, down, away,off等表示方位的副词开头的句子里, 主语是名词时, 句子要用全倒装,以示强调;但主语是代词时,主谓不倒装。) Here comes the bus. 公共汽车来了。 In came the teacher. 老师进来了。 Here you are. 给你。 Out he rushed. 他冲了出去。Away flew the birds.Out rushed the children. There goes the bell.

3. 当句首状语为表示地点的介词词组时,也常将其全部倒装即:在地点状语提前,谓语是be,stand,sit,lie 等的句子里.例如: South of the city lies a big steel factory. 城市南边有一家大型钢厂。From the valley came a frightening sound.从山谷里传来了可怕的声音。4. 表语置于句首时,倒装结构为“表语+连系动词+主语”:( 1 )形容词+连系动词+主语  Present at the meeting were Mr Li, Mr Wang and many other teachers.出席会议的有李老师、王老师和其他很多老师。( 2 )过去分词+连系动词+主语  Gone are the days when we used foreign oil.我们使用洋油的日子一去不复返了。( 3 )介词短语+ be +主语Among the goods are books, exercise-books, pens and some other things. 在所有的货物中有书、练习册、钢笔和其他东西5. 为了保持句子平衡,或为了强调表语或状语,或是上下文紧密衔接时。例如: They arrived at a small village, in front of which was a big river.他们来到一个小村庄,村庄前面是条大河。 Inside the pyramids are the burial rooms for the kings and qens.在金字塔里面有埋葬国王和王后的墓室。

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